In contrast, there is an alternative approach for your individual or family portrait that may be more appropriate for a special memory.  Here, you would have your own photo or photographs and then have them professionally done as a canvas painting or an oil painting that could easily be done in in a 20 x 30 inch painting that could be framed.  In some cases, a few individual photographs of family members or an individual can be provided separately and the artist can combine into one painting.
I attended the University of North Texas and received a Bachelor’s degree in Radio/Television and Film.  In 2011, I received a Master’s in Ed. Technology.  My first thought was I would teach technology/videography at a High School level, but I fell in LOVE with photography after my 1st daughter was born. She came into the world with the most beautiful red hair and striking blue eyes, needless to say, her Dad, her grandparents and myself were shocked!  I picked up a cheap Kodak camera and never stopped taking pictures.  Over the years I have self taught through online workshops, upgraded to a professional Canon Mark iii, purchased several fancy lens and just have gotten better by good ol’ fashion practicing.  I have 3 children ages 12, 10 and 8 who always give me a good reason to shoot what I see!  🙂  I love what I do, which I think truly shows in my work.  Photography and children inspire me.  I am so grateful to be a given a gift to see the world the way I do.

Digital cameras are very good at coming to a neutral exposure, but the truth is that the neutral exposure is not always the best exposure.  For example, suppose you are taking a picture of a person on a bright sunny day.  The camera will likely make the face of the person dark and the background too bright.  The “neutral” exposure is mid-way between exposing for the face and the background.
The best photographs are often the ones where everyone is engaged or interacting with each other. Understand that not every picture needs to have everyone looking at the camera and smiling at the same time. If you are engaged as a family and loving on each other, your eyes will be on your family members and your smile with be natural. These are the photographs that you will cherish most because they depict your family connection and your love.
Once we have completed your portrait session, we ask that all parties plan a viewing session in one week at our studio to review the images taken during the session. This allows you to hand pick your favorite images from the portrait session.  This Viewing/Investment session is where your product choices will be made and payment is expected at this time.  We do offer payment plans.
Most of the time when I meet with potential clients, they say the same thing. They don’t want their parents’ wedding photos. They want natural, unposed documentation of their wedding from someone who isn’t going to interrupt the natural flow of the day. The good news is, many (and I’d argue most) wedding photographers have already moved towards this kind of wedding photography. With the exception of a few photographers who have built a reputation on the fact that they will pose and move you during the events of the day to create perfect images (and please do ask photographers about this. There is nothing worse than being poked and prodded and posed all day if what you really wanted was someone to hang back and blend in with the scenery), a good majority of photographers are going to capture your wedding as it happens. But if most wedding photographers are approaching their work from a similar logistical standpoint, well, the end results couldn’t be more different. So how do you know what makes a good photo? What should you be looking for when you look at a photographer’s portfolio?
Thanks for the article. As i am new and just venturing out in the world of professional photography, could you suggest which camera family i should go for Pro DSLR Canon or Nikon. As you are aware that photography involves a lot of investment and its wise that i chose a good body, and build a array of lenses to go with it. I am focusing on Wildlife as well as potrait photography for the time being. Hopefully one day i would be shooting for Vogue, Nat Geo etc. Your able advice and guidance is requested.

Jane Dowd Photography is a photography studio based in Southlake, Texas, serving the areas of Dallas/Fort Worth, Southlake, Grapevine, Colleyville, and beyond. This studio specializes in high school senior, family, and engagement photography, and also offers workshops. Jane Dowd Photography crafts exquisite images that are both organic and timeless, earning them 4.7 stars out of 5 stars on their Facebook reviews.
Michael Kormos Photography is a boutique family portrait studio in NYC specializing in maternity, newborn and baby photography.  We strive to create an enjoyable, creative and giggle-filled experience, while delivering stunning photos of the highest quality.   With an eye for candid moments and genuine interactions, we have been recognized worldwide for our fresh style, creative perspectives, and portraits that celebrate the love and joy of families.  We offer maternity portraits in our Midtown Manhattan studio, newborn photography in the comfort of your home, and family photos in beautiful outdoor settings.   You can view samples of our portrait sessions on the Blog. We're excited and honored to share these special moments in your family's journey!
This pregnancy, I am not planning on official maternity photos.  While I loved getting them done and preserving my "pregnant self," I found that once the baby came, I had no desire to display maternity photos; it just seemed like someone was "missing."  My DD's maternity photos were more of the posed belly shots which look kinda cheesy to me now and DS's maternity photos were more like casual family photos where I just happened to be 30 weeks pregnant.  Definitely prefer those.  
Give your pictures a life off the computer. "It's easy to laugh at your mother's box of 35mm photos in the closet, but that's what many people's computers are -- just a metal box full of photos like Mom's," says Walsh. Start by printing and framing any special images. You can do it yourself on your home printer using quality photo paper, or order prints for as little as 9 cents each from an online service.
Few styles of portrait photography are as tricky as newborn photos — the unpredictable infant is always in charge! The best way to ensure a successful photo shoot is to work with a local newborn photographer within the first two weeks of the baby’s life. Some photographers even work with hospitals to offer newborn sessions within a day of the baby’s birth. But newborn photographers usually recommend scheduling a shoot during the baby’s first two weeks of life, while the baby is still sleepy and relatively cooperative, especially for posed or studio shots. During this time, babies are easier to swaddle in blankets and dress in hats or headbands, and, because they often nap or nurse, can be staged with various props or be cuddled by their parents. For casual photos, most newborn photographers recommend shooting within the first six weeks of a baby’s life. Lifestyle portrait photography is more flexible and doesn’t require the baby to cooperate with multiple poses or props.
Maxine Evans is a professional newborn, baby and maternity photographer whose work is based in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties. She has over 20 years’ experience in capturing maternity, newborn and baby photographs. Her experience, skills and patience allow her to capture amazing newborn and maternity portraits. Maxine is also a pediatrician and OBGYN approved expert in baby safety which makes her perfect for photographing babies especially the newborns who need more caution while trying different poses.
"I recently did a photo shoot with James and he was great! I contacted him 4 days before I needed to have the photos done and he was responsive within 15 minutes. He is really flexible with times and locations. We went to a few cool locations downtown that I would have never thought of. Very nice young man who knows what he is doing. I would do another photo shoot in the future!"

Bring your family together and schedule a photo shoot at Portrait Innovations. From new baby pictures to extended family pictures, family photos provide you with an opportunity to celebrate the important people in your life. Use our convenient studio locator tool to schedule your session today, and don’t forget to check out our Special Offers page for the latest deals.


By setting your prices this low is of concern. Also, you charge by the hour. How many hours do you spend on site? Do you give a 'fixed' price on the total job? Do you have high end equipment? Do you do this full time? Before claiming that $300 plus is too high, factor in the above points. If you are only spending an hour of time on-site, what about post processing time? I seriously doubt that you spend less than 3 hours for the entire job. Based on your rate of @125/hour, you are now up to $375, yes? Remember we are a business not a give-away profession. It sounds to me that you are undercutting your pricing which de-values the profession, your talents and everyone who is trying to make a living. Yes, there are young upshots who seem to be charging much more than you. While it is problematic, consider that they may have spent thousands in a college education at a photography school, and have huge loans and debts. It isn't as simple a calculation as you might think. Nancy
Unless you use flash you will need to learn to use natural light. It can sometimes be tricky to use but does provide the most natural looking photographs opposed to using flash. Try and avoid shooting in the midday sun if possible and also look for shaded areas outdoors. These areas can provide cover so you avoid big shadows on faces and people aren’t squinting in the images.
Another reason to hold a newborn photo shoot soon after birth is because babies change so quickly the first few months, and you don’t want to miss the chance to photograph that uber tiny newborn look. Does this mean you can’t get good pictures when your baby is three weeks old instead of seven days? Of course not. But earlier can be simpler, which is always a good thing.
Adrian Sommeling is not just a professional photographer as he is also a graphic designer, digital artist and web developer. The main secret behind making Adrian’s photographs really stunning is his unique style of photography. He captures his photographs in a unique way and adding the cartoon effect to the photos increases their beauty and makes them more impressive. If you find that Adrian Sommeling’s work is impressive and want to make use of his experience, then why do not you attend the workshops that he gives around the world?
Professionalism is seen in the details. Pay attention to how their presentation is, the care with their website, with their social networks, the attention that the person gives you. Does the photographer treat clients as just one more job? Or do every customer is important? Do you realize that they love what they do? Paying attention to these little details can help you choose or discard professionals.
The 1200D is definitely one of the easier to use cameras from Canon. From its great color reproduction, which makes sure that colors in your pictures are as similar to the real world as is humanly possible, to its decent price, it delivers great value for money and some lovely entry-level features and options that are simple to use and have almost no learning curve.
Hi Lina 🙂 I am so happy that you loved this post! Many find their true passion is with Newborn/Baby Photography, but aren’t sure where to start. This post is a great start for quick tips but because of all of our readers who wanted more info, and more detailed information, we created a very detailed and complete Newborn Photography Workshop, it might be something that would be perfect for you. Feel free to check it out right here. If any questions, just email me 🙂 Thanks for stopping by!
As a Dallas baby photographer, I love to capturing your little one’s personality with goofy grins and perfect pout while shooting on my all white backdrop. We will also use my collection of simple props, toys and neutral wardrobe to show off their sweet rolls and chunky little toes! All my baby photography sessions include your little one to be dressed in one outfit of your choice. And, of course naked booty cause lets get real everyone loves a nakey baby!
In addition to this tutorial, if you want all the info you need in one simple package with lifetime access, check out our Newborn Photography Workshop for the On-Location Photographer which Cole and I have spent months putting together all the necessary knowledge & tools to be adequately prepared for the lovely world of photographing newborns.  On sale for a limited time and all workshop participants also will get Cole’s Essential Newborn Lightroom Collection Presets, the Pricing & Positioning Yourself for Success pricing handbook, exclusive discounts & a whole lot more.  Click below to see the workshop details.
As a wedding is a one-time event, the photographer must be prepared for the unexpected. Covering a wedding is both exhausting and invigorating as the photographer is constantly looking for good angles and opportunities for candid shots. Communication and planning time-lines before the event will alleviate many of the stresses associated with photographing a wedding. The ability to tactfully take charge also helps - particularly when photographing large groups or families - a common expectation after the ceremony. Having a run list with all of the expected shots is also a useful tool. A photographer may work with an assistant who can carry equipment, arrange guests, and assist with clothing adjustments or holding of reflectors.

Bonus tip: If your camera has video capabilities you have a neat way of doing manual focus. Turn on the Live View so you can see the image on your screen. Hit your “zoom” button (it may have a magnifying glass or a “+” sign on it) once or twice. The image on the screen will zoom in (your lens doesn’t) so you can see what is in focus which allows for much most precise manual focusing. Press zoom again to return to normal view and turn off Live View.

Some wedding photographers have an office or studio which can double as a retail photography studio. In bigger cities, one might find dedicated wedding photography studios that only cover weddings and may have large studios equipped with make-up, hair, and a selection of gowns ready for the bride to wear. Other wedding photographers may work from a home studio or from a coworking space, preferring to photograph clients on-location. These home based photographers may hire additional photographers to assist them if the wedding program is large or otherwise unmanageable by a single photographer.
Carrie Smith's two young boys inspired her love of photography, leading to the creation of Carrie Smith Photography. The Dallas photo studio specializes in newborn photography and also provides in-studio or on-site maternity portraits, hospital photos, children's portraits, and family portraits. Clients have praised Carrie Smith for her memorable photos that capture the subject's spirit and her warm, patient personality.
Whether you are all playing outside in the falling leaves, posing by the cozy fireplace or walking along the beach, you are the ones who will make the photo unique. We know that it sometimes takes the inspiration from others to get your creative juices flowing, so we have put together a list of 80 photo family photo ideas. Sort through the filters to find the best fit for your family. Don’t forget to share your photos with friends and family—easily order prints from your desk or mobile phone. And for additional inspiration check out this article: family photo wall ideas.
Think about it: Your photographer doesn't automatically know that your wedding photo list would include a shot of your mom with all her sisters, or that you want a photo with all the cousins. Consider this wedding photo list a family portrait checklist for your photographer. By providing this wedding photo list before the big day, your photographer will be able to plan out the portrait timing, and which family wedding photos to take when. Not sure who to include in your wedding family photo list? We've done the hard work for you!
Blooming Tree Photography is a family-oriented photography studio located in Frisco, Texas. Jessica, their photographer, specializes in child, family, and newborn photography, and is an expert in custom portraiture and lifestyle photography. Blooming Tree Photography’s style is natural, and driven by Jessica's passion for capturing intimate family moments to be shared with everyone.
Instant viewing of your photo session is made available with a custom online slide show posted to the Bella Baby website (protected with a unique password), thus enabling distant friends and family members the opportunity to share the experience. Online viewing and ordering is offered for two weeks to anyone you choose to share your password; immediate in-hospital purchasing is also available.
Claire Smith Photography is a photography studio located in Dallas, Texas. Claire Smith is a natural light photographer who specializes in newborn, baby, child, and family photography. Claire’s style is casual, modern, and fun. Claire Smith Photography aims to document a child’s unique personality, opting for candid shots rather than directed poses.
Before joining the team at A Practical Wedding, Maddie was a sought after wedding photographer and an entertainment industry dropout with stints at the Academy Award-winning independent film house Focus Features, The Montel Williams Show, and Rosie O’Donnell’s documentary production company. She’s been with the APW team going on eight years, and now spends a significant amount of time thinking about internet trends and the future of feminist television. A Maine native, she lives on a pony farm in the Bay Area with her husband and their toddler.

Probably not the first thing that springs to mind in the equipment section of our wedding tutorial? Didn’t think so! Some caterers are lovely. However, some will do whatever they can possibly do to get out of giving you any food even if it has been paid for by the couple getting married. It’s always a good idea to have a plan B when it comes to food. Keep some crisps, chocolate, energy drinks or anything edible in your car. A wedding zaps a lot of energy so stay hydrated and full of energy to avoid the dreaded wedding hangover the next day (yes wedding hangovers are real!)
The best photographs are often the ones where everyone is engaged or interacting with each other. Understand that not every picture needs to have everyone looking at the camera and smiling at the same time. If you are engaged as a family and loving on each other, your eyes will be on your family members and your smile with be natural. These are the photographs that you will cherish most because they depict your family connection and your love.

Next, gently lift her head and position her hands and arms underneath it, then lay her head back down, turning it so she’s look out at you instead of down into the pillow. The photos below show why it’s important to tuck the hands under her head – if you don’t, they’ll likely end up right in front of her face, as in the first photo. In the second photo you can still see her hand, but it doesn’t block your view of her face.
[…] I decided to use the techniques I had practised with during my test shoot with the doll, anbd bring them into the shoot I did with the real newborn, as well as looking online for any tips that could help me with getting the images perfect. I found a site which talked me through the different poses, the best way to move the newborn and then preparation before hand, I found the advice quite helpful: DIY newborn shoots […]
"We expect to see the photos in a few weeks and will update work quality comments at that time. This review is on his handling of the event. Tandy knows how to shoot weddings. He was punctual with his assistant. There was an initial conflict with the venue staff but it was quickly resolved when I intervened. We were pleased with his help during the ceremony and the reception. He can be a little abrupt but is easy to communicate and work with. He knows what it takes to get the pictures he needs to take. Most of the time we hardly knew he was around. We'll definitely keep him in mind for future events."
“look at photography, talk about photography, read about it, but mostly shoot, shoot, shoot. We found that also networking with other photographers can get you inspired, but the important thing is to not be just networking for the sake of networking, you should be really interested in the other person as well. Too often this exchange remains one-sided and so for one person, it’s not so much of worth to be staying in touch with you. We think it’s also important to shoot for yourself and not just for your client so you can find your own voice and with time the perfect clients for you will cross your way and you will shoot for yourself, but get paid by them.”

Another reason to hold a newborn photo shoot soon after birth is because babies change so quickly the first few months, and you don’t want to miss the chance to photograph that uber tiny newborn look. Does this mean you can’t get good pictures when your baby is three weeks old instead of seven days? Of course not. But earlier can be simpler, which is always a good thing.

Babies have always been a passion of mine. My mother owned an in-home daycare until I was 12 years old and she then became a full time mom. Babies have been my life for as long as I can remember and I love to be around them everyday watching them learn and giggle. This is more than just pictures to me- these are memories. Its your babies personality shining through the images that makes me love this so much more. I am a PROUD surrogate mother of boy/girl twins that are two years old. And, my wife, Ana delivered our own boy/girl twins Ford and Davis in June 2018!


Knowing the reason why you want the photos, it’s easier to choose the style of photographer you will look for. You already know that you want a family photographer (or newborn, birth, birthday’s party, etc). Then you can start by searching on Google, Instagram, or Facebook along with the name of your city. You will have a good idea of some options that you will have.

Posed/studio sessions – Typically must be done within the first 2 weeks of birth when the baby is very sleepy and “mold-able”.  The focus in this type of session is on shots of the baby looking perfect, usually in blankets, wraps, hats, & headbands.  The session can last up to 4 hours with feeding, potty breaks, and posing.  Editing this type of session also takes quite a bit of time as each image needs to go through Photoshop individually to get a polished end result.


Nations Photo Lab may have slightly longer processing times (up to two days for prints), but it has an excellent customer service team — in our experience, the company was quick to offer a reprint or refund when an order didn’t turn out as expected. Nations offers pro-level quality, even though you don’t have to be a professional shooter to place an order, and its online platform is easy to use. Compared to Mpix, its product range is a bit wider, including custom wood or metal USB drives for delivering digital files, but, again, its processing is a bit slower. A 4 x 6 print starts at 32 cents, though the company usually has frequent sales.
Ashley, I loved your post. I am huge on annual family photos. I think it’s so important to capture a nice photo of your growing/changing family at least once a year! I love how your pictures turned out. They are very nice and the same style I like to go for. I am getting into photography and would like to do our own someday. Thanks for all the tips. I completely agree with all of them and try to do them already but seeing it written down helps to instill those ideas even more for our next shoot.
Anamaria Brandt who is also known as Ana Brandt is a maternity photographer who specializes in capturing photographs of newborn babies and pregnant women. Her work is based in Tustin, California, USA where she has her own studio. Anamaria Brandt is a celebrity photographer as well and she is the owner of Belly Baby Love. Ana Brandt is not just a photographer as she is also an author of two books which are “The Art of Pregnancy & Newborn” and “Baby Facts”. Ana has won several awards and her work has been featured in several magazines.
Instant viewing of your photo session is made available with a custom online slide show posted to the Bella Baby website (protected with a unique password), thus enabling distant friends and family members the opportunity to share the experience. Online viewing and ordering is offered for two weeks to anyone you choose to share your password; immediate in-hospital purchasing is also available.
Lisa Felthous Photography aims to tell the story behind every portrait. The photography studio, based in Sachse, shoots newborn portraits, maternity portraits, child portraits, adult and couple photos, family photos, senior portraits, and corporate headshots. Lisa Felthouse uses a spontaneous and passionate approach toward her photography. Clients have praised the photographer for her eye for detail, inventive photos, and hard work to get the perfect shot.

The type of wedding ceremony that you are used to may be completely different in other faiths.  Sometimes photographers get thrown by this and it can affect the photos.  For example, photographers who shoot an LDS wedding shouldn't be surprised that you can't photograph the actual ceremony at all!  Photographers who shoot inside a cathedral shouldn't be surprised if you can't use flash.  Photographers at a Jewish wedding need to know not to miss the bride breaking the glass.  All religions do things differently and you should be familiar with how the wedding goes, and respect the religious differences (Thanks Rebecca Birrell)
I still remember the first wedding I photographed where the bride and grooms car crashed into a Tram on the way to the park where we were going to take photos. The bride was in tears, the groom stressed out – but after we’d all calmed down people began to see some of the funny side of the moment and we even took a couple of shots before driving on to the park. They were among everyone’s favorites.
"I had family members traveling in town and we wanted to get family photos done with a professional (9 adults, 1 infant). I reached out pretty late notice and he was able to accommodate. VERY fast at corresponding with me about details for what I wanted done and at a great value. Garrett came on site to my grandmother's assistant living home for our photo shoot and was prompt and easy to work with. He captured great posed photos and priceless candid shots of both my 93 year old grandmother and 11 month old nephew. He worked quickly through my requested shot-list and we had plenty of time to get several more with his efficiency. I appreciated that he made an effort to create variety in all of our posed photo groupings and showed me some of the shots along the way to make sure I was happy with the outcomes. He worked hard at our shoot and was very experienced at working with babies too! Garrett was fast to deliver our photo proofs and updating me along the way. The photos were beautiful and we went with purchasing the entire lot. Thank you for the wonderful and treasurable investment!"
Claire Smith Photography is a photography studio located in Dallas, Texas. Claire Smith is a natural light photographer who specializes in newborn, baby, child, and family photography. Claire’s style is casual, modern, and fun. Claire Smith Photography aims to document a child’s unique personality, opting for candid shots rather than directed poses.
Instant viewing of your photo session is made available with a custom online slide show posted to the Bella Baby website (protected with a unique password), thus enabling distant friends and family members the opportunity to share the experience. Online viewing and ordering is offered for two weeks to anyone you choose to share your password; immediate in-hospital purchasing is also available.
"AMAZING! Stop looking and just book with him. Garrett is very professional and genuinely cares about his clients. He has amazing prices and really is willing to work with you. I was hesitant about hiring a professional photographer but I am so glad I did because the photos look amazing. If I ever need a photographer I will definitely be hiring him again."
Kimberly Fain Photography is located in old town Burleson. This photography studio specializes in newborn, maternity, and the first year of life sessions. Owner and photographer Kimberly Fain provides many options to display the beautiful images, including prints, mounted prints, gallery wrapped canvases, metals, acrylics, and beautiful heirloom albums. Clients may purchase digital packages, print packages, or à la carte prints as well. Kimberly's clients have left rave reviews for her abilty to create stunning galleries with a welcoming personality, and she is also a member of the Professional Photographers of America.

You should also state that taking your own photos is dangerous.. photographers know how to handle babies since that’s what they do… parents when posing have no idea. I love the comments on how parents are going to capture this important milestone.. HAPPENS once in a lifetime with bad photos. N O matter what you state here, this should left for the professionals. Its like having aunt MARY take photos at your wedding, yes you will have photos of your wedding, but don’t you want pretty photos done by a professional? it happens ONCE, that is it.. something people should think about. Just because you have scissors and a tutorial doesn’t mean you can cut hair, just because you have a recipe doesn’t mean you are a cook. Take snapshots but also hire a professional

Rachael,I LOVE your picture!!!!! You have an AWESOMELY BEAUTIFUL pregnant belly!!! I couldn’t help but notice that you have a jutting(outie)bellybutton.So many moms-to-be think that a button of the jutting variety makes for an unappealing pregnant belly,but that simply isn’t TRUE.To me a jutting bellybutton emerging from a big round protruding pregnant belly makes said belly that much more intriguing and pleasing to look at!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Nothing is worse than one photographer trying to conduct two large families for photos.  I like to plan a time for the bride's family to be there, and shoot their photos, then I'll have the groom's family come to shoot everyone together, then I ask the bride's family to leave while I shoot the groom's family.  Works like a charm.  The last thing you want is for people to be standing around waiting on you. (Thanks Michaelle Parsons Mulhollan)

The secret to being a successful photographer and not lose the passion for the craft is to constantly work on personal projects. Make the time to shoot what you love for yourself and your passion will grow by trying various digital photography techniques. At the same time your confidence as a professional will also grow. This is true for any hobby that becomes a business.


Iqbal. To find out what type of camera, you just download any of the images then right click and select properties…then navigate to details. If the file meta hasn’t been removed, it will be there. The ‘camping’ photo, for instance was taken using a Nikon d700, at a focal length of 50mm, at f1.4 . However, you also want to know that that photo was retouched in Lightrooom, so some of the toning could have been done there.
When being photographed  most, if not all, people are nervous. Yes nervous! Some are down right scared, and some would even go as far to say that they “hate it”. So it is part of your job to help your subjects feel more comfortable and relaxed. That can be hard to do when you’re also nervous, especially if you’re new to portraits. But there’s a big advantage of putting that camera on the tripod.  Two actually.
And suddenly you’re pregnant, or you’ve just had a baby and you decide you want to have your family photographed by a professional. But with so many different photographers on the market, I know it can get confusing, especially if you don’t know anything about photography or if you have never hired a photographer before. So I decided to put together a mini guide with 7 tips for choosing a family photographer.
Now is not the time to be starring dreamily into space – make sure you look at the camera (and remind everyone else in the photo to look into the camera too!). Try to get the “looking at the camera” shots out of the way first when everyone has enough attention. It can quickly get tough to get kids to cooperate, so aiming to get this shot first is key.
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